Also known as white-barred goby and sleeper banded goby. White-spotted goby has a cylindrical body covered with black and bright blue stripes on both sides of its body and a blunt snout. There is a black patch above its gills, and 1 or 2 black spots on the upper side of the caudal fin near the base. Its maximum body length is 15 cm.
White-spotted goby can be found in Solitary or in pairs, inhabiting coastal reefs on sand and rubble margins of algal reefs and sometimes near seagrass beds. It feeds on small invertebrates, organic matter, and large quantities of algae by sifting mouthfuls of sand and expelling it through the gills.
Jewelled blenny has small black spots which forming a mesh pattern at the base of the dorsal fin. There are small dark spots scattering on its pelvic, pectoral, anal and caudal fins. Its maximum body size is 14 cm in length.
Jewelled blenny is usually found solitary in areas of mixed coral, sand, rubble, and in weedy areas on rocks and coral outcrops, and feeding by scraping off algae, detritus, etc.
Also known as chalk goby. Sixspot goby has several blue spots on its operculum and a black tip at its first dorsal fin. Its maximum body length is 14 cm.
Sixspot goby is commonly seen in pairs or aggregations and usually found in silty or sandy areas of lagoons and bay. It mainly feeds on small benthic invertebrates. When the sixspot goby gets frightened, it will immediately hide in its den.
斑馬凹尾塘鱧Chinese zebra goby
Also known as Zebra barred dartfish. Chinese zebra goby is yellowish to greenish gray in color and lower half of eye to ventral of chin nearly enclosed by a broad blue-edged purple area. Its pectoral fins, base with an orange-red bar broadly bordered with bright blue, are yellowish. The maximum body length is 12 cm.
It is found to be subjected to strong currents feeding on planktons and usually in small to large aggregations. It inhabits exposed seaward reefs in relatively shallow water.
Spotted prawn-goby can grow up to 11 cm in length. It has a yellow body with several orange spots scattered on sides, and with large triangular black patches on the front of and behind the pectoral fins. Its pelvic fins are modified as a suction disk.
Spotted prawn-goby is usually found in expanses of coarse sand on seaward reefs and has symbiotic association with the alpheid shrimps.
Yellow prawn-goby varies greatly in appearance, ranging from yellow to brown and even to gray. It has blue spots scattered on the operculum and body. Its maximum body length is 10 cm.
It inhabits the sandy areas of coral reefs and living in a burrow having symbiotic association with the tiger pistol shrimp (Alpheus bellulus). While the tiger pistol shrimp maintains the internal structure of the burrow, the yellow prawn-goby guards at the entrance.
The climate here is cold and the environment is very harsh. The animals living here, whether on land or in the sea, have their own sets of survival skills. Let's take a look together!
With the approach of the Arctic winter, the tundra is covered with thick ice and snow, turning it into a silvery white world. Rub your eyes and look closely. Isn’t there something moving on the white snow? It turns out to be an Arctic hare! Its hair has changed into a coat of white fur, camouflaging it from predators. Arctic hares have wide paws like snowshoes, so they do not get caught in the thick snow when they move. Sometimes they stand on their hind legs and stretch their ears to listen for predators in the vicinity.
The Arctic hare is not the only animal with acute hearing. Snowy owls use their sharp vision and hearing to search for prey. What makes them even more deadly are the serrated leading edges of their feathers, which allow the owls to fly without a sound. They are true silent killers.
The snowy owl's favorite prey is definitely the lemming. In years when there are sufficient numbers of lemmings, this abundant food source will allow predators such as snowy owls to raise many offspring. Conversely, in years when there are only a few lemmings, predator populations will decline due to a lack of food.
The Arctic fox also feeds on lemmings, which it can hear or smell moving under the snow. The lemmings have no place to hide! When food is scarce, the arctic fox is an opportunist and will follow polar bears, waiting for the leftover food scraps after the bears have had their fill.
After months of waiting, the Arctic Sea has frozen over again and polar bears can finally step onto the ice to start their important seal-hunting journey. Polar bears are expert swimmers and move quietly between ice floes to ambush seals resting on the ice. Because these waters have been freezing later and later every year due to global warming, the timeframe for polar bears to hunt has been getting shorter and shorter.
Ringed seals use the claws on their foreflippers to dig breathing holes in the thick ice. When predators such as polar bears approach, the seals can quickly hide in the sea. As winter draws to a close, mother seals build ice-lined maternity lairs and give birth to their pups. With global warming causing ever less snowfall and thinner ice, it has become harder to build and maintain a lair, and baby seals are more likely to be found and preyed upon by polar bears.
Walruses are large, with males weighing up to 1.5 tons. They use their pair of long tusks to dig for food on the seabed. Their favorite food is shellfish, and they can consume up to 6,000 clams in one meal!
In the spring and summer, the frozen Arctic Sea gradually melts and the beluga whales that have spent the winter in the Bering Sea gain access to the Arctic Sea coastline through the Bering Strait. Year after year without fail, they always return to the area where they were born.
During the summer, Atlantic puffins flock to the coastal cliffs to build their nests and breed. One of their signature tricks is to dive into the water to hunt for fish and bring a dozen small fish to their nest to feed their hungry chicks.
The Arctic tern is the ultimate example of a migratory bird, traveling over 80,000 kilometers each year! In a globe-trotting pursuit of daylight, Arctic terns fly back to their birthplaces near the North Pole during the summer to build nests on the coast or tundra and raise their offspring. At the end of the summer, they set off again for the other side of the world, the South Pole.
Antarctica is the coldest place on earth. In winter, the waters of the Southern Ocean freeze over and the ice sheet surrounding the Antarctic continent becomes twice as large as it is in summer, forcing many animals to leave the area around the Antarctic and move north to warmer places.
In this seemingly desolate frozen world, one kind of animal chooses to carry out the task of giving birth to its offspring, and that is the emperor penguin.The emperor penguin is the largest of the penguin species, with layers of feathers and thick fat that can withstand temperatures as low as -50°C and strong winds. The baby penguins hatch at the end of winter and the parents take turns to trek to the sea dozens of kilometers away to hunt food and feed their chicks.
Another animal that stays in the Antarctic during the winter is the Weddell seal, which utilizes its teeth to carve a breathing hole in the ice to get in and out of the sea. In the spring, mother seals give birth to their pups on the ice. The fat content of seal milk is as high as 60%, and the baby seals can double their weight in a week.
When summer comes, the sea ice melts and animals return to the Antarctic. Gentoo penguins need to build nests and lay eggs on snowless ground, so they choose to breed on the coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, where the climate is milder.
It is not easy for Gentoo penguins to raise their offspring successfully, as the mischievous south polar skuas are watching closely for a chance to take a chick as prey. Although skuas have a bad reputation, such a foraging strategy is necessary to survive in the Antarctic, where food is scarce.
The albatross is the bird with the longest wingspan in the world. Except for landing while breeding, it spends almost all of its time drifting in the air in distant oceans. The wandering albatross feeds on squid and small fish, and the Southern Ocean is its vast and abundant fishing ground.
But humans also use the polar seas as prime fishing grounds, where large fishing boats catch arctic fish and other fishery resources such as Antarctic krill. Antarctic krill is a critical species in the Antarctic food chain, the most important food source for many creatures and the reason why penguins, seals, and baleen whales come to the Antarctic in the summer.
Humpback whales are a species of baleen whales that do not have teeth but only comb-like plates of baleen. They take in seawater containing krill and filter the water through the baleen.
Leopard seals can weigh up to 600 kg and their food includes krill, fish, and squid. But with their strong and powerful streamlined body, huge jaws, and sharp teeth, leopard seals are also a fierce and terrifying predator of penguins. They hide in the water, patrolling around the ice, waiting to ambush penguins the moment they enter the sea.
Although leopard seals are already apex predators, once they encounter orcas, they become prey. Orcas, also called killer whales, are like wolves of the sea. When they hunt together in packs, they can even hunt other whales that exceed them in size.
The largest animal on earth, the blue whale, has also arrived in the vast Antarctic Ocean. This behemoth of the sea can reach 30 meters in length and weigh nearly 180 tons, and it can consume 5,000 kilograms of krill a day! The ecology of the polar seas is extremely rich and irreplaceable. While admiring nature, we should also address the impact of human beings on the environment and try our best to make changes so that the frozen paradise of the Arctic and Antarctic regions can thrive in perpetuity.